What is blood pressure? causes and symptoms

 Blood pressure:

Blood pressure is a measure of force exerted by heart to pump blood around your body. The pressure exerted by the circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels is called blood pressure. Mostly, the heart is responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system. The pressure in the large arteries is meant when the term “blood pressure” is used without the qualifier.

Table of Contents:

  1. What is blood pressure?
  2. What is normal blood pressure by age?
  3. Blood pressure numbers and what they mean.
  4. What are the causes of high blood pressure?
  5. What are the symptoms of high blood pressure (hypertension)?
  6. What are the symptoms of lower blood pressure (hypotension)?
  7. What is the reason for low blood pressure (hypotension)?
  8. How do I lower my high blood pressure?
  9. What is normal blood pressure for a 60-year-old?
  10. How do I know if I have high blood pressure (hypertension)?

1. What is blood pressure?

Blood pressure is the force exerted against the artery walls. Along with each heartbeat, it pumps blood into the arteries through the circulatory system. Your blood pressure is high whenever your heart beats and pushes the blood. Arteries take blood from the heart to other parts of the body. Your blood pressure normally rises and is low the whole day.

2. What is normal blood pressure by age?

A normal blood pressure level is less than 120/80 mmHg. To keep your blood pressure in a healthy range, you can take steps every day, no matter what your age.

Normally, blood pressure according to age and gender is given below.

18-39 years

110/68 mmHg in women

119/70 mmHg in men

40-59 years

122/74 mmHg in women

124/77 mmHg in men


139/68 mmHg in women

133/69 mmHg in men

3. Blood pressure numbers and what they mean?

Blood pressure is measured as two numbers.

Systolic blood pressure

Systolic blood pressure (the first number) tells us how much pressure is exerted by your blood against the walls of your artery when the heart beats.

Diastolic blood pressure

The second number is diastolic, which indicates how much pressure is exerted by blood against the walls of the artery when the heart is at rest between two beats.

Commonly, more concentration is given to systolic blood pressure, which is a great risk factor for cardiovascular disease for those over 50. To make a diagnosis of high blood pressure, an elevated systolic or elevated diastolic blood pressure reading may be used.

Recent studies show that for individuals between the ages of 40 and 89, the chance of death from ischemic heart disease and stroke doubles with every 20 mmHg diastolic or 10 mmHg systolic increase.

4. What are the causes of blood pressure?

You could be more at risk of danger if you:

  • Take too much salt, and do not take an insufficient amount of fruits and vegetables.
  • Are overnight.
  • Take too much coffee, wine, or other drinks that contain caffeine and smoke.
  • Don’t exercise enough.
  • There is a lot of stress being over the age of 65.
  • Relatives with high blood pressure live in undeveloped areas and are of black African or black Caribbean origin.

Making healthy lifestyle modifications can sometimes help reduce your blood pressure if it’s already high and reduce the chance of developing high blood pressure.

Health conditions may cause high blood pressure.

  • Long-term kidney infection
  • Diabetes
  • Renal disease
  • Scleroderma (sometimes issues with organs and blood vessels; this condition causes thickened skin)
  • Lupus (in this condition, the defense system or immune system attacks parts of the body, e.g.,  the skin, organs, and joints).
  • Sleep apnea (in which throat walls narrow and relax during sleep and disturb normal breathing)
  • Glomerulonephritis (tiny filters inside the kidney may be damaged)
  • Arteries that supply the kidney become narrow.

Medicines may cause an increase in blood pressure.

  • Antidepressants
  • Herbal remedies
  • Steroids
  • Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Contraceptive pill

5. What are the symptoms of high blood pressure (hypertension)?

Most people suffering from high blood pressure have no symptoms. Chest pain, blurred vision, headaches, and other symptoms of very high blood pressure.

If you have high blood pressure, then the best way to know is by checking your blood pressure. Hypertension may cause other health conditions such as kidney disease, heart disease, and stroke if it is not treated in the best way. People suffering from hypertension, usually 180/120 or high, can have the following symptoms:

  • Much headaches
  • Dizziness
  • A chest ache
  • Difficulties in breathing
  • Anxiety
  • Confusion
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Other changes in vision or blurred
  • Nosebleed
  • Ears that buzz
  • Unexpected heartbeat

A health professional measuring blood pressure is the only way to detect hypertension.

6. What are the symptoms of lower blood pressure (hypotension)?

Symptoms of lower blood pressure are given below, but the best way to know is by checking your blood pressure.

  • Confusion
  • Fainting
  • Lightheadedness
  • Nausea
  • Sleepiness
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • not a clear vision.

7. What is the reason for low blood pressure (hypotension)?

The device through which blood pressure is measured is called a sphygmomanometer. If the measurement falls 30 mmHg below the individual’s normal blood pressure, hypotension will occur.

Low blood pressure (hypotension) has a number of causes or reasons, such as:

  • Insecurity, nervousness, stress, emotional pain (the most frequent reason for fainting)
  • Dehydration causes the blood volume to reduce.
  • Dehydration arises from the body’s reaction to heat, which is to shunt blood into the vessels of the skin.
  • Donating blood
  • Internal bleeding, such as a stomach ulcer that has perforated,.
  • Loss of blood from trauma,like any deep cut or road accident
  • High-blood-pressure medications
  • Fluid loss by diuretics
  • Drugs for depression
  • Drugs for certain heart conditions
  • Allergic response to certain medications or drugs
  • Specific kinds of infections, particularly toxic shock syndrome
  • Cardiac disease, which can damage the pumping system of heart muscles
  • Certain nervous system diseases, like Parkinson’s disease Addison’s disorder (where the adrenal glands are unable to produce enough blood pressure to regulate the hormone)

Orthostatic hypotension

Usually, when you stand up straight after sitting or lying down, the blood vessels in response to gravity contract and as a result, blood pressure arises.

Orthostatic hypotension, which causes drowsiness, occurs when blood vessels don’t adjust their standing position and instead permit blood pressure to drop.

Causes include:

  • Neuropathy, nervous system disorder
  • Dehydration
  • Prolonged bed rest
  • Unstable cardiac rhythm, or arrhythmia.

8. How do you lower the high blood pressure?

If people have high blood pressure, they should change their lifestyle because lifestyle changes can help people lower their high blood pressure. These may be


  • Weight loss (if you are overweight)
  • Eating a healthy diet
  • Being physically active, including running, swimming, dancing, or other activities
  • Eat more vegetables.
  • Sit less
  • Take medicine regularly according to what is prescribed by your doctor.


  • Stop eating too much salty food.
  • Stop eating fatty and high-saturated foods.
  • Don’t miss or share medication.
  • Stop drinking too much alcohol.
  • Stop smoking or using tobacco.
  • Low blood pressure prevents heart attacks, renal damage, strokes, and many other health issues.

Minimize the risk of hypertension by:

  • Decrease and manage stress.
  • Treating high blood pressure
  • Checking blood pressure regularly
  • And manage other health issues.

9. What is normal blood pressure for a 60-year-old?

A blood pressure reading of less than 130/80 mmHg is ideal for individuals 65 years of age and older. The first number, systolic blood pressure, indicates how hard the heart is working. The secondary number is diastolic, which indicates the arterial pressure when the heart is at rest. Seniors who have high blood pressure but still have less than 130/80 mmHg should change their lifestyle. For readings higher than this range, medication is typically needed.

10. How do I know if I have high blood pressure?

If you have high blood pressure, there is only one way to determine it: by having a doctor or medical professional measure it. Your blood pressure can be measured quickly and painlessly.

Talk with your medical team about measuring your blood pressure on a daily basis at home, also known as self-measured blood pressure monitoring.

The other name for high blood pressure is “silent killer.”. because many people are unable to know they have it and typically show no warning signs or symptoms.